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Tawakoni

 

 

Ethnie: TAWAKONI
Language: Wichita
Family Wichita
Stock: Northern Caddoan
Phylum: Caddoan
Macro-Culture: Great Plains
Speakers 10 or fewer speakers   1998 James Brooks, NY Times
      The Tawehash were a hunter/farmer tribe located on the Canadian River north of the Washita.  They were agricultural, as well as buffalo hunters.  The Tawehash moved often due to pressure from predatory tribes.  They confederated into the Wichita late in the 1800's.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
OK  Flechazos
Present Locations
OK Among Wichita Tribe, Anadarko
Year History
1500 Predatory Apacheans migrated into Wichita territories
1772 Settled in two groups on Trinity and Brazos Rivers
1779 Trintiy band joined Brazos
1816 Smallpox epidemic
1824 Entire tribe back on Trinity River
1829 Allied with Comanche and Waco against Cherokee, Choctaw, Delaware, Shawnee campaign; took losses
1855 Place on reservation near Ft. Belknap on the Brazos River
1859 Forced to Oklahoma by Texas hostility and joined Wichita
Year Total Population OK TX Source
1700 1,000 1,000 NAHDB calculation
1772 800 800 Mexieres estimates
1800 800 800 NAHDB calculation
1859 204 204 Joined Wichita, hereafter enumerated with Wichita
1900 - NAHDB calculation 
2000 - NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Tawakoni, Waco, and Wichita 
Tawehash Sites:
Art Works Reported Missing from Wichita Indian Center  http://www.kctv.com/Global/story.asp?S=3108198
Catlin Collection  http://catlinclassroom.si.edu/catlin_browsepagetribe.cfm?StartRow=201
Grass Wigwam at Wichita  http://www.kancoll.org/khq/1933/33_1_isely.htm
Huntinghorse, Dina, Jeweler  http://www.taostrading.com/eshox_pages/dina.html
Native American Heritage Village  http://allaboutwichita.com/articles/indian/indian01.html
Red man Linked to the Palo Pinto Mountains  http://www.rootsweb.com/~txpalopi/oddsnends/1857-1957news/ppmountains.htm
Tawakoni Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/caddo/tawakoniindianhist.htm
Wichita  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/wichita.html
Wichita and Affiliated Tribes  http://www.wichita.nsn.us/
Wichita Archives  http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/ok/nations/wichita/wichita/
Wichita Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t117
Wichita Camp  http://www.archives.gov/research_room/research_topics/native_americans/select_list_022.html
Wichita Falls History  http://www.wichitafalls.org/historical.htm
Wichita Folklore  http://www.towerofbabel.com/map/article.pl?sid=04/02/23/2217234&mode=thread&tid=267
Wichita Four Cycles Prophesy  http://www.aaanativearts.com/article736.html
Wichita Indian Center  http://theindiancenter.com/
Wichita Indian Legends  http://homepage.mac.com/thorntonstreiff/The_W_Indian_Legends.html
Wichita Indians  http://www.texasindians.com/wichita.htm
Wichita Indians  http://www.rra.dst.tx.us/c_t/indians/WICHITA%20INDIANS.cfm
Wichita Indians  http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/print/WW/bmw3.html
Wichita Indians  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15616b.htm
Wichita Indians of Texas  http://www.angelfire.com/tx2/ecc/wichita.html
Wichita Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/wichita/wichitaindianhist.htm
Wichita Language  http://www.native-languages.org/wichita.htm
Wichita Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=WIC
Wichita Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=WIC
Wichita Literature  http://www.indigenouspeople.net/witchita.htm
Wichita or Kitikit-ees  http://users.aol.com/donh523/navapage/wichita.htm
Wichita Tribe  http://www.omaha.lib.ne.us/transmiss/congress/wichita.html
Wichita Village  http://www.indiancityusa.com/indian_village_wichita.asp

Last updated 04/07/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press