Tewa Pueblos



Languages: Tewa
Family: Tewa
Stock: Tewa-Tiwa
Phylum: Kiawa Tanoan
Macro-Culture: Southwestern
Speakers 1,298 1980 Census
      The Tewa Pueblos were a sedentary agricultural culture of the greater Pueblo culture. Their villages were along the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico.  Their 60 or so villages ranged from Santa Fe to the lower course of the Rio Chama.
     They were early victims of the Spanish conquest, and preyed upon by the Apaches, Navajos, Comanches, and Utes. The Arizona Tewa are now enumerated with the Hopi.
Aboriginal Locations
NM (60 villages)
Present Locations
AZ    Hopi Reservation, Hano
NM   Nambe Pueblo, Nambe
          Pojoaque Pueblo, Popoaque
          San Idelfonzo Pueblo, San Idelfonso Pueblo
          Ohkay Owingeh, formerly San Juan Pueblo, San Juan
          Santa Clara Pueblo, Santa Clara Pueblo
          Tesuque Pueblo, Tesuque Pueblo
Year History
1528 Known to Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
1540 Coronado passed through southern end of territory during his conquest and found it nearly vacant due to an attack by a warlike plains tribe (probably Apache)
1590 Gaspar Castaño de Sosa conquered Pecos, went westward to Keresan but was arrested at Santo Domingo by New Spain troop and disgraced
1598 Juan de Oñate arrived, forced Pueblo vassalage to Spain
1607 Oñate removed from governorship
1609 Gov. Pedro de Peralta arrived, founded Santa Fe, built palace with Pueblo labor, disregarded Indian protection laws
1628 Many churches built, friars added, native religion banned
1640 Severe drought for several years, thousands of Pueblos died
1663 Severe drought and famine for six years
1680 Pueblo Rebellion led by San Juan Tewa Popé, 400 Spaniards died in siege of Santa Fe, 50 fled to El Paso
1691 Cochiti burned in failed reconquest try
1693 Successful reconquest
1694 Many joined Hopi due to reconquest
1720 Trading fairs began with nomadic tribes
1777 Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza led peace pact between Pueblos and nomads except Apache
1821 Mexican Independence
18XX Smallpox epidemic nearly destroyed southern Tewa early in century
1846 Mexican-American War
1913 Pueblo land claims recognized
Year Population Source
1630 6,000 Fray Alonzo de Benavides
1680 2,200 Fray Augustín de Vetancurt
1700 1,700 NAHDB calculation
1706 1,706 Fray Juan Alvarez
1752 1,012 New Mexico census
1797 985 Fray Francisco de Hezio census
1800 1,000 NAHDB calculation
1810 1,232 New Mexico census
1821 1,441 Fr. Pedro Rubin de Celis
1860 1,111 Dozier
1900 1,500 Dozier
1900 1,500 NAHDB calculation
1930 1,621 Dozier
1937 1,708 US Indian Office 
1940 2,058 Dozier
1948 2,281 Dozier
1964 3,469 Dozier
1973 3,279 BIA
1981 5,746 BIA
1989 5,014 NAHDB estimate using BIA data
2000 6,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Tewa Pueblo links:
Cities of Gold Casino
"Eagle Ceremony at Tesuque Pueblo,"  Baumann painting
Hopi-Tewa Art
Hopi-Tewa Koshares
Hopi-Tewa Pottery
Hopi-Tewa Pottery , Al Qoyawayma
Hopi-Tewa Pottery, Dee Setalla
Hopi-Tewa Vessels
Hopi Tribe - First Mesa
Koshare Picnic
Lonewolf, Rosemary, Santa Clara Artist
Naha, Raymond (Hopi-Tewa) Artist
Nambe Pueblo
Naranjo-Morse, Nora
Northern New Mexico Pueblos
Onate, Juan de
Pavatea, Ted, Hopi-Tewa Kachina Carver
Poeh Center
Pojoque Pottery
Pojoaque Pueblo
Pojoaque Pueblo
Pope' - Tewa Medicine Man
Pueblo Culture and Ethnobotany
Pueblo Pottery Classroom
San Idelfonzo Pueblo
San Juan Pueblo
San Juan Turtle Race
Santa Clara Pottery
Santa Clara Pueblo
Santa Clara Pueblo
Tesuque Pottery
Tesuque Pueblo
Tesuque Pueblo
Tewa Indian Pueblos
Tewa Indians
Tewa Indian Tribe
Tewa Language
Tewa Language
Tewa Linguistic Lineage
Tewa Photos

Last updated 03/16/05   Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press