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Tewa Pueblos

 

 

Ethnie: TEWA PUEBLOS
Languages: Tewa
Family: Tewa
Stock: Tewa-Tiwa
Phylum: Kiawa Tanoan
Macro-Culture: Southwestern
Speakers 1,298 1980 Census
      The Tewa Pueblos were a sedentary agricultural culture of the greater Pueblo culture. Their villages were along the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico.  Their 60 or so villages ranged from Santa Fe to the lower course of the Rio Chama.
     They were early victims of the Spanish conquest, and preyed upon by the Apaches, Navajos, Comanches, and Utes. The Arizona Tewa are now enumerated with the Hopi.
Aboriginal Locations
NM (60 villages)
Present Locations
AZ    Hopi Reservation, Hano
NM   Nambe Pueblo, Nambe
          Pojoaque Pueblo, Popoaque
          San Idelfonzo Pueblo, San Idelfonso Pueblo
          Ohkay Owingeh, formerly San Juan Pueblo, San Juan
          Santa Clara Pueblo, Santa Clara Pueblo
          Tesuque Pueblo, Tesuque Pueblo
Year History
1528 Known to Alvar Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca
1540 Coronado passed through southern end of territory during his conquest and found it nearly vacant due to an attack by a warlike plains tribe (probably Apache)
1590 Gaspar Castaño de Sosa conquered Pecos, went westward to Keresan but was arrested at Santo Domingo by New Spain troop and disgraced
1598 Juan de Oñate arrived, forced Pueblo vassalage to Spain
1607 Oñate removed from governorship
1609 Gov. Pedro de Peralta arrived, founded Santa Fe, built palace with Pueblo labor, disregarded Indian protection laws
1628 Many churches built, friars added, native religion banned
1640 Severe drought for several years, thousands of Pueblos died
1663 Severe drought and famine for six years
1680 Pueblo Rebellion led by San Juan Tewa Popé, 400 Spaniards died in siege of Santa Fe, 50 fled to El Paso
1691 Cochiti burned in failed reconquest try
1693 Successful reconquest
1694 Many joined Hopi due to reconquest
1720 Trading fairs began with nomadic tribes
1777 Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza led peace pact between Pueblos and nomads except Apache
1821 Mexican Independence
18XX Smallpox epidemic nearly destroyed southern Tewa early in century
1846 Mexican-American War
1913 Pueblo land claims recognized
Year Population Source
1630 6,000 Fray Alonzo de Benavides
1680 2,200 Fray Augustín de Vetancurt
1700 1,700 NAHDB calculation
1706 1,706 Fray Juan Alvarez
1752 1,012 New Mexico census
1797 985 Fray Francisco de Hezio census
1800 1,000 NAHDB calculation
1810 1,232 New Mexico census
1821 1,441 Fr. Pedro Rubin de Celis
1860 1,111 Dozier
1900 1,500 Dozier
1900 1,500 NAHDB calculation
1930 1,621 Dozier
1937 1,708 US Indian Office 
1940 2,058 Dozier
1948 2,281 Dozier
1964 3,469 Dozier
1973 3,279 BIA
1981 5,746 BIA
1989 5,014 NAHDB estimate using BIA data
2000 6,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Tewa Pueblo links:
Cities of Gold Casino  http://www.citiesofgold.com/History.html
"Eagle Ceremony at Tesuque Pueblo,"  Baumann painting  http://www.vaxxine.com/PastAtPresent/featured/baumann.htm
Hopi-Tewa Art  http://www.adobegallery.com/origin.php?origin_id=357&cat_id=all
Hopi-Tewa Koshares  http://www.ancientnations.com/Gallery%20HTML/theodore_pavatea_hot_dogs_2.html
Hopi-Tewa Pottery  http://4peaksgallery.com/pottery_hopi.htm
Hopi-Tewa Pottery , Al Qoyawayma  http://www.tribalcollectors.com/01_2003/alq.htm
Hopi-Tewa Pottery, Dee Setalla  http://www.tribalcollectors.com/02_2005/deesetalla.htm
Hopi-Tewa Vessels  http://www.nmmagazine.com/NMGUIDE/nambe.html
Hopi Tribe - First Mesa  http://www.hopi.nsn.us/village1.asp
Koshare Picnic  http://www.ancientnations.com/Gallery%20HTML/ted_pavatea_koshare_picnic.html
Lonewolf, Rosemary, Santa Clara Artist  http://www.nativeart.net/artist.php?ucode=cbxr9i
Naha, Raymond (Hopi-Tewa) Artist  http://www.elkridgeart.com/guide/featured.image.index.ihtml?step=2&startnum=1&maxvalue=9&c=13&n=245&o=1&increment=9
Nambe Pueblo  http://www.nmmagazine.com/NMGUIDE/nambe.html
Naranjo-Morse, Nora  http://www.hanksville.org/storytellers/nora/
Northern New Mexico Pueblos  http://www.santa-feonline.com/pueblos.htm
Onate, Juan de  http://www.santafe.com/history/juan_de_onate.html
Pavatea, Ted, Hopi-Tewa Kachina Carver  http://www.hoelsindianshop.com/html/Ted_Pavatea.html
Poeh Center  http://www.poehcenter.com/
Pojoque Pottery  http://www.clayhound.us/sites/pojoaque.htm
Pojoaque Pueblo  http://www.nmmagazine.com/NMGUIDE/pojoaque.html
Pojoaque Pueblo  http://www.nmtourism.org/place/loc/travel/page/DB-place/category/300/place/177.html
Pope' - Tewa Medicine Man  http://www.indians.org/welker/pope.htm
Pueblo  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Pueblo.htm
Pueblo  http://home.swipnet.se/~w-38391/pueblo.html
Pueblo Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/pueblo_culture.htm
Pueblo Pottery Classroom  http://www.ipl.org/div/pottery/pueblo.htm
San Idelfonzo Pueblo  http://www.nmmagazine.com/NMGUIDE/ildefonso.html
San Juan Pueblo  http://www.nmmagazine.com/NMGUIDE/juan.html
San Juan Turtle Race  http://www.composersrecordings.com/linernotes/80301.pdf
Santa Clara Pottery  http://www.tribalexpressions.com/pottery/debra.htm
Santa Clara Pueblo  http://www.nmmagazine.com/NMGUIDE/clara.html
Santa Clara Pueblo  http://www.nativeart.net/tribesantaclara.shtml
Tesuque Pottery  http://www.clayhound.us/sites/tesuque.htm
Tesuque Pueblo  http://www.nmmagazine.com/NMGUIDE/tesuque.html
Tesuque Pueblo  http://www.nmtourism.org/place/loc/travel/page/DB-place/category/300/place/199.html
Tewa Indian Pueblos  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/newmexico/tewaindianhist.htm
Tewa Indians  http://jeff.scott.tripod.com/tewa.html
Tewa Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/pueblo/tewaindianhist.htm
Tewa Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=TEW
Tewa Language  http://www.native-languages.org/tewa.htm
Tewa Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=1711
Tewa Photos  http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award97/codhtml/hawpSubjects343.html

Last updated 03/16/05   Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press