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Tohono O'odham

 

 

Ethnie: TOHONO O'ODHAM (PAPAGO)
Language: Upper Piman
Family: Tepiman
Stock: Uto-Aztecan
Phylum: Aztec-Tanoan
Macro-Culture: Southwestern Desert
Speakers 11,819   1990 Census including Pima
     The Tohono O'odham were a sedentary desert hunter/farmer nation.  They occupied the arid territories south and southeast of the Gila River, especially south of Tucson, and the tributary valleys of the Santa Cruz River, and southwest southwest across the Papagueria Desert into Sonora, Mexico.
     Tohono O'odham tradition maintains that the adobe ruins in their territories, including Casa Grande, were built by their ancestors.  It continues that their old way of life was destroyed by three bands of foreigners who destroyed their pueblos, devastated their fields, and killed or enslaved many of their people.  The survivors fled to the mountains for some time, and upon returning, elected not to rebuild the pueblos.
     The Tohono O'odham experienced early Spanish influence from missionization.  They suffered from Apache depredations and the influx of settlers and outlaws.  They nonetheless maintained substantial populations.  This analysis reflects only the Arizona Tohono O'odham.
Aboriginal Locations
About 28 villages in AZ & 30 in MX
Arizona Present Locations
AZ  Ak Chin Reservation, Ak Chin
       Papago Reservation, Sells
       San Xavier Reservation, Sells
       Tohono O'odham Council, Sells
Year History
1694 Visited by Father Kino who introduced horses and wheat
1731 Frs. Segresser and Grashoffer founded Missions San Xavier del Bac and San Miguel de Guevavi
1736 Visited by Fr. Ignacio Javier Keller
1751 Participated in Pima rebellion
1769 Decrease in Spanish military presence resulted in increased Apache raids
1776 Presidio established at Tucson, 75 men
1853 Gadsden Purchase
1854 Railroad surveys, influx of miners into territory
1856 Campaign with the US military against the Apache
1872 San Xavier Reservation established
1879 Railroad constructed; suffered from depredations of White settlers and outlaws
1986 Tribe changed name from Papago to Tohono O'Odham
Year U.S. Population Source
1680 6,000 Mooney estimate
1700 6,000 NAHDB calculation
1800 5,500 NAHDB calculation
1900 5,000 NAHDB calculation
1906 4,981 Swanton
1923 5,267 US Indian Office
1930 5,205 Census
1937 6,306 US Indian Office
1973 8,708 BIA
1981 17,671 BIA Estimate
2000 20,000 NAHDB calculation & ITCA
Other speakers of the same language:
Pima, Sobaipuri
Tohono O'odham Sites:
Ak Chin Indian Community  http://www.itcaonline.com/tribes_akchin.html
American Indian Women as Art Educators  http://jaie.asu.edu/v18/V18S1ame.html
Baboquivari Peak ...  http://www.azleg.state.az.us/legtext/42leg/2r/laws/hcm2005.htm
Border Issues  http://www.hrusa.org/indig/reports/Tohono.htm
Border Issues  http://www.rtfcam.org/report/volume_21/No_3/article_10.htm
Border Issues  http://www.useless-knowledge.com/columnists/bobbieoneill/article25.html
Border Security  http://www.doi.gov/news/040218a
Chairman Josiah Newton Moore  http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?r103:S04MY3-45:
Coil Plaque  http://www.heardmuseumshop.com/browse.cfm/4,475.html
Fame of Padre Kino  http://www.padrekino.org/documentienglish/ukfamous.htm
Gathering Cactus Fruit  http://curtis.library.northwestern.edu/viewPage.cgi?showp=1&size=2&id=nai.02.book.00000021.p&volume=2
Hohokam Pima National Monument  http://www.nps.gov/pima/
Horse Hair Plaque  http://www.penfieldgallery.com/baskets/NAntone.html
Immigrants Leaving Mounds of Trash ...  http://www.kold.com/Global/story.asp?S=1029934&nav=14RTCdPO
Indian Lands  http://www.arizonan.com/Indianlands/Indianlands.html
Interview:  Vivian Juan-Sanders  http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1068135655
Labyrinth Design  http://www.earthart.org/happenings/kiva/labyrinths.html
Labyrinths  http://www.labyrinthos.net/photo04.htm
Meet the Ancient O'Odham  http://www.azstarnet.com/desertmuseum/nativepeople.html
O'odham Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=PAP
Papago Arts  http://oldpueblomoo.arizona.edu:7000/295/
Papago - Tohono O'odham  http://www.bigeye.com/sexeducation/papago.html
Research in the Sierra Madre ...  http://www.desertmuseum.org/programs/yecora_cienega.html
Reservation Etiquette  http://navajocentral.org/etiquitte.htm
Resources for Astronomy Outreach ...  http://www.noao.edu/education/native/ton.php
Reviving Native Foods ...  http://www.oxfamamerica.org/whatwedo/where_we_work/united_states/news_publications/art4144.html
Sahuaro Pickers' Basket  http://www.kold.com/Global/story.asp?S=1029934&nav=14RTCdPO
San Xavier del Bac Mission ...  http://www.sanxaviermission.org/Tohono.html
Songs of the Tohono O'odham  http://www.canyonrecords.com/cr6084.htm
Stanley Explores the Hohokam Culture  http://archaeology.asu.edu/vm/Education/stanley/pages/hohokam.html
Tohono Basket  http://www.american-indian-art.com/tohono-basket.html
Tohono O'odham  http://dizzy.library.arizona.edu/images/swf/odham.html
Tohono O'odham and Akimel O'Odham Language  http://www.native-languages.org/papago.htm
Tohono O'odham as a Quantity-Sensitive Language  http://www.lsi.ku.edu/lsi/internal/seminars/seminars/presentations/Miyashita_M03-10-03.pdf
Tohono O;odham Basket  http://www.artsmia.org/surrounded-by-beauty/southwest/oodham_home.html
Tohono O'odham Basket  http://www.bigcountrytradingpost.com/bahti/basketry.html
Tohono O'odham Basket  http://www.americantreasures.com/atreasure/tohoodbas1.html
Tohono O'odham Basket  http://www.bairsindiantradingco.com/basket_items/66-14-801_EL.htm
Tohono O'odham Basket Miniature Horse Hair  http://www.simplybaskets.com/Horsehair_Basket_Miniature_Blond_Papago.html
Tohono O'odham Baskets  http://www.adobegallery.com/origin.php?origin_id=21&cat_id=all
Tohono O'odham Basket Tray  http://www.tribalworks.com/B182_Tohono_O'odham_tray_basket_by_Rena_Grandson.htm
Tohono O'odham Basket Vase  http://www.southwestriches.com/reservation/res_tohono.cfm
Tohono O'odham Flag  http://www.manataka.org/page356.html
Tohono O'odham Indians  http://jeff.scott.tripod.com/Tohono.html
Tohono O'odham Indian Lands  http://www.arizonan.com/Indianlands/tohonoOdham.html
Tohono O'odham Language  http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/RIL_9.html
Tohono O'odham Nation  http://www.itcaonline.com/tribes_tohono.html
Tohono O'odham Nation  http://storytrail.com/pages/TOK.html
Tohono O'odham / Papago  http://www.nps.gov/tuma/papago.html
Tohono O'odham (Papago) Literature  http://www.indians.org/welker/papago.htm
Tohono O'odham (Papago) Literature  http://www.indigenouspeople.net/papago.htm
Tohono O'odham Teacher Hopes ...  http://www.native-voice.com/fullstory.cfm?ID=909
Tohono O'odham Today  http://www.heard.org/rain/cultura2/raincul6.html
Tohono O'odham Words  http://www.native-languages.org/papago_words.htm
Toward a Responsive Dwelling  http://ag.arizona.edu/OALS/ALN/aln28/tohono.html
Tribe Wants U.S. Citizenship for Members in Mexico  http://users.skynet.be/suffrage-universel/us/usnaoo.htm
Tumacacori NHP  http://www.nps.gov/tuma/Natives.html
Underhill, Ruth and Maria Chona ...  http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/chona.html
Zepeda, Ofelia, Author  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/A182

Last updated 01/26/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press