FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

Tolowa

 

Ethnie: TOLOWA
Language: Tolawan
Family: Pacific Coast Athapaskan
Stock: Athapaskan
Phylum: Na-Dene
Macro-Culture: Northwestern
Speakers 5      1997 Sebeok
     The Tolowa were a sedentary coastal hunter/gatherer tribe which relied heavily on fishing. The Pacific Coast Athapaskans arrived in the area late in the first millennium from Canada. The Tolowa were located on Crescent Bay, Lake Earl, and the Smith River. They suffered from the White influx.
Aboriginal Locations
8 to 10 villages
Present Locations
ELK VALLEY RANCHERIA, Crescent City
SMITH RIVER RANCHERIA, Smith River
Year History
1775 Bodega visited Trinidad Bay, but did not meet Tolowa
1793 Capt. George Vancouver visited Trinidad Bay and did not meet tribe, but may have caused Cholera epidemic which spread to Tolowa
1828 First White contact with Jedediah Smith
1850 Decade of measles and cholera epidemics as White settlers and miners encroached into territory
1872 Began practice of Ghost Dance
1929 Introduction of Indian Shaker movement
Year Population Source
1700 450 NAHDB calculation
1770 450 Kroeber estimate
1800 450 NAHDB calculation
1848 450 Cook estimate
1852 450 Cook estimate
1880 200 Cook estimate
1900 150 NAHDB calculation
1910 121 Census
2000 200 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Tolowa Sites
American Indian Languages of Western Oregon  http://www.lanecc.edu/library/don/orelang.htm
American Indians Today  http://www.nps.gov/redw/area_amerind2.htm
Arch Rock  http://www.curryhistory.com/archrock.html
The Battle in Lake Earl, California  http://www.geocities.com/cal357mag/Page23.html
California Coastal Trail  http://www.californiacoastaltrail.org/oldsite/del-norte.html
California Redwood National and State Parks  http://www.savetheredwoods.org/protecting/pdf/mp_c_crnp.pdf
James Collins Linguist  http://www.albany.edu/anthro/fac/collins.htm
Crescent City  http://www.wildriverscoast.info/news/story.cfm?story_no=36
Crissy Field  http://areas.wildernet.com/pages/area.cfm?areaID=ORSPCRI&CU_ID=1
Gambling Songs of the Tolowa Indians  http://www.bluefish.org/gambling.htm
Howonquet Massacre  http://www.originalvoices.org/USGovtRolesFive.htm
Humbolt - Del Norte  http://www.cirhm.org/humboldt/index.asp
Northern Indian Plank House  http://www.ncidc.org/photos/gallery1/85_13.htm
Northwest California Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/northwest_california-oregon_culture.htm
The Place of Writing in Preserving Oral Languages  http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/RIL_7.html
Pouring the People by Josh Lewis  http://www.originalvoices.org/PriceOfGoldOne.htm
Preserving Tradition  http://www.triplicate.com/news/story.cfm?story_no=401
Redwoods Gallery  http://www.goldengatephoto.com/WestUS/redwood.html
Annette L. Reed, Ph.D.  http://www.csus.edu/indiv/r/reedal/
Smith River Rancheria  http://www.tolowa-nsn.gov/
Stolen Girls  http://members.tripod.com/~boyett/yurok1.htm
Tah-Ah-Dun Magnet School ...   http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues03/Co11152003/CO_11152003_Magnet_School.htm
Tolowa  http://www.tolowa.com/
Tolowa  http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Tolowa.html
Tolowa Bibliography  http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/cilc/bibs/tolowa.html
Tolowa - SFSU Narrative  http://bss.sfsu.edu/calstudies/NativeWebPages/tolowa.html
A Tolowa    http://www.edwardscurtis.com/ATOLOWA.html
Tolowa Image Library  http://www.humboldt.edu/~jmg2/ImageBank.html
Tolowa Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=TOL
Tolowa Language  http://www.native-languages.org/tolowa.htm
Tolowa Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=TOL
Tolowa People  http://members.tripod.com/~boyett/ind.html
Tolowa Traditional Narratives  http://www.answers.com/topic/tolowa-traditional-narratives
Tolowa Tradition Bearer, Loren Brommelyn  http://www.nea.gov/honors/heritage/Heritage02/Bommelyn2.html
Tolowa/Tututni  http://www.curtis-collection.com/tribe%20data/tolowa.html
Tolowa Village at Pebble Beach  http://www.donaldlaird.com/landmarks/counties/600-699/649.html
Tolowa Woman  http://www.fluryco.com/galleries/ca7.htm
Tolowa Women  http://www.ncidc.org/photos/gallery1/85s11.htm
West Coast Athabaskans  http://logos.uoregon.edu/explore/Oregon/athabascan.html

Last Updates 08/13/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press