Tonkawan Tribes



Language: Tonkawa
Family Toinkawa
Stock: Coahuiltecan
Phylum: Coahuiltecan
Macro-Culture: Texas
Speakers Language extinct
      The Tonkawa were a language group of affiliated semi-sedentary hunter/farmer tribes of the southern plains.  They were located in central Texas from Cibolo Creek on the southwest to within a few miles of the Trinity River on the northeast.  They had conflicts with Whites as well as other tribes, and suffered from the later settlers.  They were reported to have practiced cannibalism of captured enemies.
Aboriginal Locations (Tribes)
TX    Coyabegux, Mayeye, Tenu [?], Tetzino, Tohaha, Toho, Tonkawa, Tucara, Tusolivi, Yojuane, Yprande [?]
Present Locations
Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma, Tonkawa
Year History
1536 Probably visited by Cabeza de Vaca
1689 Smallpox epidemic
1691 Mentioned by Francisco Casanas de Jesus Maria as enemies of the Hasinai
1714 Destroyed the main fire temple of the Hasinai
1746 Gathered into mission on San Xavier River
1756 Mission abandoned
1758 Assisted in destruction of San Saba Mission established for the Lipan Apache
1779 Smallpox epidemic
1782 El Mocho, Apache turned Tonkawan, failed in an attempt the unite the two tribes against the Spanish
1839 Smallpox epidemic
1855 Put, with other tribes, on a reservation on the Brazos River; began scouting for Texas Rangers against Comanche
1859 Fled Texans to Oklahoma
186X Scouted for the South in the Civil War
1862 Surprise attack by body of Delaware, Shawnee, and Caddo Indians who killed 137 of tribe, 160+ members of tribe wandered for several years before gathering at Fort Griffin, Texas for protection against their enemies
1884 Placed on Oklahoma reservation
Year Total Population OK TX Source
1690 1,600 1,600 Mooney est.
1700 1,000 1,000 NAHDB calculation
1778 1,000 1,000 Spanish estimate
1779 500 500 Survivors after smallpox epidemic
1800 400 400 NAHDB calculation
1828 300 300 Swanton
1884 92 92 Reservation roll
1900 50 50 NAHDB calculation 
1908 42 42 Swanton
1930 48 48 Census
1937 51 51 US Indian Office 
1981 1,265 1,265 BIA
1989 763 763 BIA
2000 1,000 1,000 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Tonkawan Sites:
Coyabegux Indians
Elusive Chanas of the Llano Uplift
Mayeye Indians
Tenu Indians
Tetzino Indians
Texas Tonk
Tohaha Indians
Toho Indians
Tonkawa Authors
Tonkawa Flag
Tonkawa Indians
Tonkawa Indians
Tonkawa Indians
Tonkawa Indians
Tonkawa Indians
Tonkawa Indians
Tonkawa Indians of Texas
Tonkawa Language
Tonkawa Language
Tonkawa Language
Tonkawa Linguistic Lineage
Tonkawa Literature
Tonkawa Nation
Tonkawa Nation
Tonkawas - Indians of Central Texas
Tonkawa Story
Tonkawa Tribe
Tomkawa Tribe of Oklahoma
Tucara Indians
Tusolivi Indians
Yojuane Indians
Yprande Indians

Last updated 04/13/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press