FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Tsimshian

 

 

Ethnie: TSIMSHIAN (CHIMMEYSAN)
Language: Tsimshian
Family: Tsimshian
Stock: Chinookan
Phylum: Macro-Penutian
Macro-Culture: Northwestern
Speakers 750   (2002 Poser)  
      The Tsimshian were a sedentary coastal hunter nation that relied heavily on fishing and were active traders. They occupied the lower course of the Skeena River and the neighboring coast with their most important location being Metlakatla. They suffered from the White influx. The tribe ultimately divided over Anglican religious views.
Aboriginal Locations (Villages)
BC     Kilutsai, Kinagingeeg, Kinuhtoiah, Kishpachlaots, Kitklaqhta, Kitlani, Kitsalthlal, Kittizoo, Kitunto, Kitwilgioks, Kitwilksheba, Kitzeesh, Kitzilas, Kitzimgaylum
Present Locations
AK    Annette Island Reserve, Metlakatla, Port Chester
BC    Hartley Bay, Hartley Bay
         Kitasoo First Nation, Klemtu
         Kitkatla First Nation, Kitkatla
         Kitselas Indian Band, Terrace
         Kitsumkalum Band, Terrace
         Lax Kw'alaams Indian Band, Prince Rupert
         Metlakatla Band, Prince Rupert
Year History
Formerly lived inland, pushed down to the Pacific in relatively late times, possibly displacing Tlingit
1787 Visited by Charles Duncan and James Colnett
1793 Area charted by Capt. George Vancouver
1831 Fort Simpson established
1835 Fort Essington established
1857 Anglican mission established at Metlakatla by Duncan ended who wrongly claimed to have ended ritual cannibalism
1862 Smallpox epidemic
187X Minor Skeena gold rush
1876 Cannery established at Skeena
1887 Duncan removed over differences with his superiors, he and many Indians removed to Annette Island
1898 Klondike gold rush
Year Population AK BC   Source
1700 8,500   8,500   NAHDB calculation
1800 8,500   8,500   NAHDB calculation
1835 8,500       Duff estimate
1885 4,500       CDIA
1895 3,550       CDIA
1900 465       Alaska
1900 4,000 500 3,500   NAHDB calculation
1963 6,475       CDIA
1980 9,494       CDIA
2000 8,300 1,300 7,000   NAHDB calculation
2001 7,201   7201   Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
2004 1,370 1,370     Alaska State Demographer
Other speakers of the same language:
Gitsan, Niska
Tsimshian Tribe Sites:
Argument Making in Riverine Tsimshian  http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/~ebach/papers/argmrk.htm
Coast Tsimshian Language  http://www.ydli.org/langs/coastsim.htm
Coast Tsimshian Language  http://www.civilization.ca/aborig/stones/groups/tsimi.htm
Eyak, Tlingit, Haida and Tsimshian  http://www.aaanativearts.com/article1092.html
Hartley Bay  http://www.tricorp.ca/pages/villpgs/hartley.html
Helin, Bill, Artist  http://billhelin.com/credits/helinbio.htm
Helin, Leeanne  http://www.leannehelin.com/bio.htm
Kitasoo First Nation  http://www.kitasoo.org/
Kitkatla  http://www.bcfn.org/profile/kitkatla.htm
Kitkatla  http://www.civilization.ca/aborig/nwca/nwcam27e.html
Kitkatla Photos  http://kitkatlachat.iwarp.com/gallerymenu2.html
Kitselas  http://www.kitselas.bc.ca/
Lax Kw'alaams  http://citizen.nfb.ca/blogs/macdonald/archives/000327.html
Literature, Myths and Traditions of the Tsimshian  http://www.library.utoronto.ca/robarts/microtext/collection/pages/benyonmn.html
Metlakatla  http://www.metlakatla.com/index.html
Metlakatla  http://www.alaskanow.com/town/metlakatla.htm
Ryan/Kinder  http://www.arts.wa.gov/progFA/appren/2002_ryan_kinder.htm
Thunderbird's Proud Heritage  http://www.shannonthunderbird.com/Pacific%20Northwest%20Coast.htm
Tsimshian  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsimshian
Tsimshian Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t224
Tsimshian First Nation Treaty  http://www.bctreaty.net/nations_3/tsimshian.html
Tsimshian, Gitsan & Niska  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/tsimshian.htm
Tsimshian Language  http://www.tsimshianlanguage.org/
Tsimshian Language  http://www.native-languages.org/tsimshian.htm
Tsimshian Language  http://www.kitsumkalum.bc.ca/language.html
Tsimshian Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tsi
Tsimshian Legends  http://billhelin.com/legends/legends.htm
Tsimshian Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tsi
Tsimshian Nation  http://kafka.uvic.ca/~maltwood/nwcp/tsimshia/intro.html
Tsimshian Tribal Council  http://www.gov.bc.ca/arr/negotiation/first_nations_in_the_process/tsimshian_tribal_council_map.htm
Tsinshian Tribe History  http://www.metlakatla.com/tribeHistory.php

Last updated 11/06/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press