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Tunica

 

 

Ethnie: TUNICA
Language: Tunican
Family Tunican
Stock: Tunican
Phylum: Algic
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
Speakers None
       The Tunica were a sedentary hunter/farmer nation and one of the latest of the Mound Cultures.  They were located at the present site of Clarksdale, Mississippi in their town of Quizquiz.  They were devastated in conflicts with other tribes.  Ultimately, the Tunica were joined by several tribes including the Siouan speaking Biloxi and Ofo and the Natchez speaking Avoyel, as well a some Choctaw.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions, #of villages)
MS    Quizquiz
Present Locations
LA    Tunica-Biloxi Indian Tribe, Mansura
Year History
1540 De Soto attacked mound village of Quizquiz and captured 300 women while men off working in corn fields, soon released captives and made peace
1682 Known to LaSalle as makers of salt in northeast Louisiana
1699 Father Davion established himself among tribe; La Source said they occupied about 260 cabins
1700 Gravier said tribe occupied 50-60 cabins (there is no official reason for the depopulation, but it should be noted that the nearby Quapaw suffered a devastating smallpox epidemic in 1699)
1702 Iberville said tribe comprised of 300 families
1706 Moved to Houma village after attacks by Alabama and Chickasaw, later rose against their hosts and killed more than half of the Houma
1719 Assisted French against Natchez, discouraged Father Davion left, tribe removed from the Yazoo River
1731 Attacked by the Natchez, both sides took large losses, Tunica chief killed
1758 Governor Kerlerec estimated that tribe has about 60 warriors
1763 Began attacks against British
1790 Moved to near Avoyel on Red River
1803 Attacked British expedition on the Mississippi River
1886 Gatschet heard of some Tunica living near Beaumont, Texas, had been joined by Biloxi
1981 Federal government recognized Tunica-Biloxi Tribe
Year Total Population LA MS Source
1650 2,000 Mooney est. (Incl. Yazoo, Koroa, Ofo)
1699 2,000 Missionary De Montigny
1699 1,575 Swanton estimate
1700 500 500 NAHDB calculation
1719 460 Swanton
1800 50 50 NAHDB calculation
1803 50 Sibley estimate
1900 50 50 NAHDB calculation 
1910 43 Census
1930 1 Census
1990 200 Brain
2000 200 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Koroa, Yazoo
Tunica Sites:
Loess Hill Chronology  http://www.backyardnature.net/loess/chronol.htm
Myrtles Plantation  http://www.ghostmag.com/issues/2004-01/2004-01-Clubroom-Myrtles.html
North American Series  http://www.picturesofrecord.com/north%20america%20Page2.htm
On the Tunica Trail  http://www.crt.state.la.us/crt/ocd/arch/tunica/tunica.htm
Paragon Casino and Resort  http://www.paragoncasinoresort.com/about/about_us.asp
Pointe Coupee Conspiracy  http://www.afrigeneas.com/forumd/index.cgi?noframes;read=6688
Protector of the Past  http://www.archaeology.org/online/interviews/eubanks.html
Quizquiz  http://www.crt.state.la.us/crt/ocd/arch/tunica/quiz.htm
Tunica and Koroa Indians  http://www.uark.edu/depts/contact/tunica.html
Tunica-Biloxi Articles of Incorporation  http://www.tribalresourcecenter.org/ccfolder/tunica_biloxie_artofinc.htm
Tunica-Biloxi Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t225
Tunica --Biloxi Tribe Master Plan  http://www.mvn.usace.army.mil/pd/projectsList/home.asp?projectID=70&directoryFilePath=ProjectData%5C
Tunica-Biloxi Tribe of Louisiana  http://www.tunica.org/
Tunica-Biloxi Tribe of Louisiana  http://www.nsula.edu/folklife/database/cultures/NativeAmer/TunicaBiloxi.html
Tunica-Biloxi Woman Recalls ...  http://www.carencrohighschool.org/la_studies/INDIAN/Tunica-Biloxi/Tunica-Biloxi_woman_recalls_trials.htm
Tunica County History  http://www.rootsweb.com/~mstunica/hist2.htm
Tunica Indians  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14777a.htm
Tunica Indian Tribe History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/tunica/tunicahist.htm
Tunica Language  http://www.native-languages.org/tunica.htm
Tunica Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=TUK
Tunica Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_lang_family.asp?code=TUK
Tunica Vocabulary  http://www.native-languages.org/tunica_words.htm

Last updated 06/28/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press