Language: Tuscaroran
Family: Northern Iroquoian
Stock: Iroquoian
Phylum: Macro-Siouan
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
      The Tuscarora were a sedentary but bellicose hunter/farmer nation. The were located inland in the valleys of the Roanoke, Tar, Pamilco, and Neuse Rivers of North Carolina. They destroyed and absorbed the survivors of several other tribes. Most removed to New York (1712) after the two Tuscarora Wars. There they joined the Iroquois confederacy, thereby creating the League of Six Nations.
Aboriginal Locations Subdivisions [(# of Villages)
NC      Akawantca'ka, Katenua'ka, Skaru're (23)
Present Locations
NY     Tuscarora Reservation, Tuscarora
ON    Six Nations of the Grand Rive, Oshweken
Year History
1650 Accompanied Edward Blande, said to be very powerful and addicted to trade
1670 Visited by John Lederer; subsequent smallpox epidemic
1711 Captured and executed of John Lawson which caused First Tuscarora War, though Whites had encroached into tribal territory and taken slaves; Tuscarora Chief Hencock, with help of Coree, Pamilco, Machapunga, and Bear River massacred 130 Whites; Col. Barnwell attack repulsed, made peace but colonists immediately violated treaty by taking slaves
1712 Second Tuscarora War started with Col. James Moore killing 950, tribe went north to join League of Five Nations; allied with Coree, Machapunga, and Pamilco who later confederated into Tuscarora
1722 Full League rights granted to tribe
1723 North Carolina Tuscarora and Chowanoc placed on reservation, confederated
1776 Took side of colonists in Revolution, attacked by pro-British tribes
1797 Received land in New York from treaty at Genesee, pro-British tribe members moved to Ontario
1802 Remainder of North Carolina Tuscarora joined Iroquois in New York
1875 Oneida sold lands on which Tuscarora had settled, dispersed to other New York sites and Pennsylvania
Year Total  Population NC NY ON Source
1600 5,000 5,000       Mooney estimate
1700 4,500 4,500       NAHDB calculation
1708 4,500         Lawson estimate
1765 1,000         Swanton
1796 400         Swanton
1800 400   200 200   NAHDB calculation
1885 828         Swanton
1900 800   400 400   NAHDB calculation
1910 416     416   CDIA (Canada)
1910 400   400     Census (U. S.)
1981 725   725     BIA
1989 664   664     BIA
2000 2,400   1,200 1,200   NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Coree, Meherrin, Nottoway
Tuscarora Sites:
Cultural Anthropology of Indian Villages
Iroquoian Language Family
Six Nations of the Grand River
Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation
Six Nations Writers
Tuscarora Authors
Tuscarora Indian Chief (Bronze)
Tuscarora Indian Reservation Mar - 1890
Tuscarora Indian School
Tuscarora Indian Tribe History
Tuscarora Indian War
Tuscarora Indian War
Tuscarora Language
Tuscarora Language
Tuscarora Language
Tuscarora Language
Tuscarora Language
Tuscarora Linguistic Lineage
Tuscarora Nation
Tuscarora North Carolina History
Tuscarora School
Tuscarora Tribe
White-De Bry Map of Virginia (1590)

Last updated 08/30/05  Copyright 2005 by Four Directions Press