FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

Western Shoshoni

 

Ethnie: SHOSHONI*, WESTERN (NEWE) *also spelled SHOSHONE
Language: Central Numic
Family: Numic
Stock: Uto-Aztecan
Phylum: Aztec-Tanoan
Macro-Culture: Great Basin
Speakers 2,284 in US incl Northern      1990 Census
     The Western Shoshoni were a nomadic hunter/gatherer dialectic group and culture closely related to the Northern Shoshoni. They were primarily of a foraging type culture in that they occupied the arid Great Basin as relied on small game, fish, and dug for roots for subsistence. They spanned over a large area in just under 200 small villages or camps. They ranged from central and western Idaho south into northwestern Utah, central and northeastern Nevada, and California about Death and Panamint Valleys but wondered well outside of the aforementioned territories hunting, gathering, and foraging for food..  The Western Shoshoni avoided White contact, thereby resulting in little of their post arrival history being recorded. The introduction of domestic livestock destroyed the vegetation on which they relied for food. The Panamint Shoshone and Koso became transitions cultures prior to White contact embracing the Southern California culture, becoming semi-sedentary rather than nomadic, and intermarrying with the tribes of Southern Califoania.  Please click here for a more detailed historical narrative of the Timbasha Shoshone relative to the proposed casino at Hesperia, California
Aboriginal Locations
Number of villages or camps:  CA 123, ID 6, NV 42, UT 10
Present Locations
CA    Big Pine Reservation, Big Pine
         Bishop Reservation, Bishop
         Bridgeport Indian Colony, Bridgeport
         Death Valley Indian Community, Timbisha Shoshone Tribe, Death Valley
         Lone Pine Reservation, Lone Pine
NV   Battle Mountain Colony, Battle Mountian
         Duck Valley Reservation, Owyhee
         Duckwater Reservation, Duckwater
         Elko Colony, Elko
         Ely Colony, Ely
         Fallon Colony and Reservation, Fallon
         Fort McDermitt Reservation, McDermitt, NV & OR
         Ruby Valley Reservation, Ruby Valley
         South Fork and Odgers Ranch Reservation, Lee
         Winnemucca Colony, Winnemucca
         Yomba Reservation, Yomba
UT    Goshute Reservation, Ibapah
         Skull Valley Reservation, Grantsville
Year History
1825 Met by Jedediah Smith, may have been preceded by Old Greenwood
1849 Panamint of California first contacted by Whites, negatively affected by Gold Rush, livestock depleted food supplies
1851 Smallpox epidemic
1862 Began attacking stage lines and pony express, Army massacred large number of tribe at Steptoe Valley
1863 U.S. treaty with Western Shoshone at Ruby Valley
1933 Panamint (Timbasha) ancestral lands taken to create Death Valley National Monument
1983 Timbasha Shoshone federally recognized
2000 Desert Protection Act dictated that the Timbisha Shoshone are to be given a viable reservation
2004 President Bush signed Western Shoshone Distribution Bill forcibly distributing $145 million to tribes for their 24 million claimed acres against wishes of tribe thereby claiming  termination of the Ruby Valley Treaty
Year Total Population CA ID NV UT   Source
1700 4,500 500 400 2,900 700   NAHDB calculation
1800 4,500 500 400 2,900 700   NAHDB calculation
1845 4,500         Mooney estimate (included 2,000 Northern Paiute)
1900 2,100 200   1,800 100   NAHDB calculation
1910 1,800         Census
1937 1,201         U. S. Indian Office
1989 3,400         BIA
2000 6,000 500   5,200 300   NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
CA Koso, ID/WY Northern Shoshoni, OK Comanche
Western Shoshoni Sites
Ancient Altered States  http://www.discover.com/issues/jun-98/features/ancientalteredst1456/
Ancient Artists of the Desert  http://www.desertusa.com/magdec97/dec_pap/du_artists.html
"Ascertaining" Tonopah's Origin  http://dmla.clan.lib.nv.us/docs/nsla/archives/myth/myth32.htm
Archeological Resources  http://www.nps.gov/moja/mojaplan/mojaaffc.htm
Big Pine Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/bigpine/index.htm
Bishop Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/bishop/index.htm
Black the West poem by Sunderland  http://www.fourdir.com/black_the_west.htm
California Trail - Western Shoshone History  http://www.nv.blm.gov/elko/CATrail/AppC.htm
China Lake: Prehistoric Human Occupation ... http://www.cirhm.org/indian_wells/index.asp
Duck Valley Indian Reservation  http://www.idahorcd.org/duckval.htm
Duck Valley Reservation Map  http://www.rootsweb.com/~idreserv/dvmap.html
Duckwater Reservation  http://www.geocities.com/heartland/meadows/4377/res.html
Duckwater Shoshone Tribe  http://www.greatbasinheritage.org/duckwater.htm
EIS Timbasha Shoshone Homeland Act (Federal Register) http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/2001/January/Day-26/i2340.htm
Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe  http://www.fpst.org/
Fort Ruby, Ruby Valley, NV  http://www.webpanda.com/white_pine_county/historical_society/ft_ruby.htm
Gold, Greed, and Genocide  http://saiic.nativeweb.org/ayn/goldgreed.html
The Gold Rush Legacy:  Greed, Pollution, and Genocide    http://www.earthisland.org/eijournal/spring98/sp98g_wr.htm
Goshute Indian Reservation  http://www.greatbasinheritage.org/goshute.htm
Goshute Indian Reservation Case Study  http://faculty.virginia.edu/ejus/GoshuteIntro.htm
Goshute Tribe  http://indian.utah.gov/utah_tribes_today/goshute.html
Granite Mountains Archeological Survey  http://www.pcas.org/Vol37N2/GraniteMts.pdf
Great Basin  http://www4.hmc.edu:8001/humanities/basin/gb-intro.htm
Great Basin Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/great_basin_forager_culture.htm
Halloran Spring: Cultural Resources  http://www.nps.gov/moja/mojaplan/mojaaffc.htm
Indian Wells Valley  http://www.cirhm.org/indian_wells/index.asp
Just Earth  http://www.amnestyusa.org/justearth/indigenous_people/western_shoshone.html
Legend of Manitou Springs  http://history.oldcolo.com/stories/shortsto/legendms.html
Lewis and Clark (Western Shoshoni mentioned)  http://www.lib.uidaho.edu/mcbeth/governmentdoc/histlewisclark.htm
Litigation to Protect Western Shoshone Territorial Integrity  http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/shoshone/
Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Reservation  http://lppsr.org/
Mending broken promises ...  http://www.shundahai.org/mending_broken_promises.htm
Mojave Desert Petroglyphs at Black Canyon  http://www.petroglyphs.us/photographs_rock_art_BC.htm
Native Americans Get Some of Their Land Back from a National Park  http://www.sdnp.org.gy/apa/native_land_back_from_np.htm
Native Americans and the Environment - Great Basin  http://www.cnie.org/NAE/basin.html
Newe Sogobia  http://www.newesogobia.com/
Newe Sogobia - Western Shoshone Homeland  http://www.h-o-m-e.org/Shoshone/index.htm
No Dirty Gold  http://www.nodirtygold.org/western_shoshone_nation_usa.cfm
Panamint (Language)  http://linguistics.buffalo.edu/ssila/learning/panamint.htm
Panamint (Timbasha) Baskets  http://www.indianterritory.com/pages/panamint.htm
Relationships of Native American Cultures to NEMO Lands  http://www.nps.gov/moja/mojaplan/mojaaffn.htm
Relationships of Native American Cultures to Death Valley Area  http://www.nps.gov/moja/devaplan/affntv.htm
Ruby Valley Treaty  http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/shoshone/ruby_valley.html
Shoshone Bibliography  http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/cilc/bibs/shoshone.html
Shoshone/Paiute Tribes History/Links  http://www.rootsweb.com/~idreserv/dvhist.html
Shoshoni  http://emuseum.mnsu.edu/cultural/northamerica/shoshoni.html
Shoshoni Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=SHH
Shoshoni Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=SHH
Shundahai Network  http://www.shundahai.org/
Skull Valley Indian Reservation  http://ludb.clui.org/ex/i/UT3191/
Skull Valley Reservation  http://www.alphacdc.com/necona/skull-vy.html
Some Western Shoshoni Myths  http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/ca/wsm/index.htm
Te-Moak Shoshone Western Band Tribe  http://www.reviewjournal.com/lvrj_home/2004/Jul-08-Thu-2004/news/24267284.html
Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians  http://www.temoaktribe.com/
Timbasha Shoshone Death Valley Land Restoration Project  http://www.dickshovel.com/timup.html
Timbasha Shoshone Homeland Act  http://www.calindian.org/timbisha.htm
Timbasha Shoshone Images  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/timbishashoshone/timbishashoshone_images.htm
Timbisha Shoshone Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/timbishashoshone/
Timbisha Shoshone Tribe  http://timbisha.org/history.htm
Timbisha Shoshone Tribe Face Eviction  http://www.yvwiiusdinvnohii.net/news/timbisha.html
Timbisha Shoshone Tribe of Death Valley  http://www.nps.gov/deva/Pdf/TribeOverview.pdf
Timbisha Shoshone Web Site  http://www.timbisha.org/
Treaty With the Western Shoshoni  http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sho0851.htm
Tribal Maps  http://www.acfnewsource.org/science/tribal_maps.html
Wells Band of Western Shoshone  http://www.angelfire.com/nv2/wells/shoshone.html
Western Shoshone  http://www.unr.edu/nnap/NT/ws-1.htm
Western Shoshone  http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Western-Shoshone-Orientation.html
Western Shoshone Ancestral Lands  http://www.pbs.org/circleofstories/storytellers/shoshone_map.html
Western Shoshoni Cannibal Myths  http://www.unm.edu/~jar/v52n2.html
Western Shoshone Defense Project  http://www.wsdp.org/
Western Shoshone Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/westernshoshonihist.htm
Western Shoshone:  Law Frees Funds for Indian Land  http://www.reviewjournal.com/lvrj_home/2004/Jul-08-Thu-2004/news/24267284.html
Western Shoshone (Nevada)  http://www.peacebrigades.org/nap/nap95-00.html
Western Shoshoni of Nevada    http://www.webpanda.com/white_pine_county/ethnic/shoshone.htm
Western Shoshone Push for Answers ...  http://www.oxfamamerica.org/newsandpublications/news_updates/western-shoshone-push-for-answers-at-annual-meeting-of-barrick-gold
Western Shoshone Struggle Earn World Recognition  http://newstandardnews.net/content/index.cfm/items/2954
Western Shoshone Territory  http://www.unr.edu/nnap/NT/ws-2.htm
What Battle?  What Mountain?  http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/trailofthe49ers/localhistory.htm
White Pot Mine  http://www.ghosttowns.com/states/ca/whitepotmine.html
White Trail in the Sky  http://www.earthbow.com/native/shoshone/whitetrail.htm
Wolf Protector of Women  http://earthrenewal.org/dog_care_usenet_postings.htm

Last updated 08/23/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press