FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Wintu

 

Ethnie: WINTU (WINTUN)
Language: Wintuan (Dialects:  Nomlaki, Patwin, Wintu)
Family: Wintuan
Stock: California Penutian
Phylum: Penutian
Macro-Culture: Central California
Speakers 10      1990 Census
      The Wintu were a hunter/gatherer language family. There were three distinct dialects. The northern group were known as Wintu proper in the north, the Nomlaki in their central territories, and the southern were known as Patwin. They occupied the west side of the Sacramento Valley. The west border extended roughly along the crest of the Coast Range to about Cottonwood Creek in the north and the Sacramento on the south. The exceptions to this were Wappo, Miwok and Pomo territories that extended into the Sacramento watershed; and in the northwest portion of Wintu territory where it extended west of crest of the Coast Range. On the east side of the valley, their territory extended to an average of five miles east of the Sacramento from the Pit River south to just above present Knights Landing. The river was the eastern border south of that point. The Wintu suffered huge population losses from the genocide of the Mexicans and the gold rush settlers and miners as well as from disease.
Aboriginal Locations
Chuidau, Dahchi'mchinisel, Damak, Kalaiel, Nomkewel, Mi'tenek, Olwenem-Wintun, Pelmemwe, Peltikewel, Pomtididisel, Sohu'slabe-Nome'lmimlabe, Soninmak, Tehemet, Toba, Tolokai, Waikewel, Waltikewel,
Present Locations
COLUSA RANCHERIA, Colusa
CORTINA RANCHERIA, Williams
GRINDSTONE CREEK RANCHERIA, Elk Creek
REDDING RANCHERIA, Redding
ROUND VALLEY RESERVATION, Covelo
RUMSEY RANCHERIA, Brooks
Groups With Recognition Pending
WINTOON INDIANS, Anderson
WINTU INDIANS OF CENTRAL VALLEY, Central Valley
WINTU TRIBE OF NORTHERN CALIFORNIA, Project City
Year History
1821 Large numbers indentured to Mexican feudal barons
1826 Territory visited by Jedediah Smith and Peter Skene Ogden
1830 Malaria epidemic
1833 Pandemic epidemic
1846 John C. Fremont slaughtered 175 of tribe; Mexico granted tribal lands to Pearson B. Reading
1850 Whites poisoned 100 Trinity Wintu in "friendship feast"
1851 Whites massacred 150 of tribe at council house meeting
1852 Treaty of peace and friendship
1856 Whites drove tribe off of lands in "Wintun War"
1866 Ethnie hunted down and forced to reservations
1871 Began practice of Ghost Dance
1938 Shasta Dam flooded tribal lands
Year Population Source
1700 12,000 NAHDB calculation
1770 12,000 Kroeber estimate
1800 12,000 NAHDB calculation
1848 8,000 Cook estimate
1852 5,700 Cook estimate
1880 1,500 Cook estimate
1900 1,000 NAHDB calculation
1910 710 Census
1915 701 Cook estimate
1930 380 Census
1971 900  Cook estimate
1989 2,885 BIA
2000 3,200 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Wintu Sites
Beaded Bottles  http://members.aol.com/anniebee2/bottles.htm
Cache Creek Casino  http://www.cachecreek.com/
Central California Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/central_california_culture.htm
Constitution and By-Lays of the Cachil Dehe Band of Wintun Indians  http://thorpe.ou.edu/IRA/wincons.html
Cottonwood:  History of the Upper Sacramento Valley  http://www.geocities.com/cott1388/wintun.html
Dance Regalia  http://www.pacwesttraders.com/dance.html
Ethnographic Photographs ...   http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=tf309nb6dt&chunk.id=c000434&brand=oac
Exhibit of Native People - Tehama County Museum  http://www.tco.net/tehama/museum/tcmnativ_1.htm
Gold Fever  http://www.museumca.org/goldrush/fever04-ci.html
Gold Rush Legacy:  Greed, Pollution, and Genocide  http://www.earthisland.org/eijournal/spring98/sp98g_wr.htm
Indian Opinions of the Earthquake of April, 1906  http://www.notfrisco.com/calmem/earthquake/barrett.html
Indians, Grizzlies Succumb to Newcomers  http://63.192.157.117/history/Conti/conti102295.html
In the Light of Reverence  http://www.pbs.org/pov/tvraceinitiative/ilr.html
Ishi "Part Wintu"  http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/96legacy/releases.96/14310.html
Join Tribe's Struggle to Shasta Dam Expansion  http://actionnetwork.org/BIODIVERSITY/alert-description.tcl?alert_id=2685814
Journey to Justice ...  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues02/Co06292002/CO_06292002_Wintu.htm
Mechoopda Indian Rancheria  http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/5views/5views1h51.htm
Mending the Hoop  http://www.csuchico.edu/pub/inside/archive/98_10_22/top_story2.html
Morphological Parallels Between the Klamath and Wintu  http://www.uoregon.edu/~delancey/papers/hpw87.html
Native American Artist of Mt. Shasta: 1908  http://www.siskiyous.edu/shasta/art/ind.htm
Native Americans of Suisun ..  http://www.geolit.org/rushranch/First.htm
Native Americans - Wintu Indians    http://www.fiftythings.com/native.americans.html
Nomi Lackee Monument  http://www.mjbarkl.com/nomi.htm
Patwin Bibliography  http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/cilc/bibs/patwin.html
Patwin Indian Baskets  http://www.californiabaskets.com/pages/patwinhome.html
Patwin Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/california/patwinindianhist.htm
Patwin Indians Stock Photography  http://www.davidsanger.com/stock/patwin-indians
P is for Patwin Tribe  http://members.napanet.net/~lotus72/ABC/P.htm
Proto-Wintun  http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=ucpress/ucpl
Harvey Pitkin Papers  http://www.amphilsoc.org/library/mole/p/pitkin.htm
Honorong Her Wintu Past  http://www.geocities.com/cott1388/berkey.html
Quail Ridge Reserve:  Human History - Patwiin  http://nrs.ucdavis.edu/Quail/Natural/Human_Patwin.htm
Rattlesnake Kills the Chief's Daughter, A Wintu Story  http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Legends/A_Rattlesnake_Kills_The_Chiefs_Daughter-Wintu.html
Redding Rancheria  http://www.redding-rancheria.com/
Round Valley Indian Reservation History  http://covelo.net/tribes/pages/tribes_history.shtml
Rumsey Indian Rancheria - A Wintun Tribe  http://www.rumseyrancheria.org/
Sacred Lands  http://www.geocities.com/cott1388/wintun.html
Second Patwin Burial Site Found  http://www-dateline.ucdavis.edu/061600/DL_burialsite.html
Sid-di-pou-i-wi-ta, A Wintun Story  http://www.manataka.org/page997.html
Some Indian Tribes Still Fighting for Government Recognition  http://www.sacredland.org/endangered_sites_pages/supporting/Wintu_AP_05-04.html
Who Was Ishi?  http://www.berkeley.edu/news/berkeleyan/1996/0214/ishi.html
Winneman Wintu Position Regarding Shasta Dam Abstract  http://indian.senate.gov/2002hrgs/060402hrg/Franco.PDF
Winneman Wintu Restoration Act  http://www.theorator.com/bills108/s2879.html
Winneman Wintu Tribe  http://www.winnememwintu.us/
Winneman Wintu Tribe's Culture and Sacred Sites, ...  http://www.ncai.org/data/docs/resolution/midyear2004/04-006.pdf
Winneman Wintu:  Waging War on Shasta Dam  http://yeoldeconsciousnessshoppe.com/art182.html
Win-River Casino  http://www.winrivercasino.com/
Wintu  http://www.siskiyous.edu/shasta/nat/win.htm
Wintu  http://nativewiki.org/Wintu
Wintu 4th Grade Student Project  http://www.murrieta.k12.ca.us/alta/grade4/tribes/wintu.html
Wintu Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t118
Wintu Fast  http://nativenet.uthscsa.edu/archive/nl/9308/0324.html
Wintu Student project  http://www.murrieta.k12.ca.us/alta/dfuller/2002/05w/tribe.html
Wintu Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/copehan/wintunindianhist.htm
Wintu Language  http://www.native-languages.org/wintu.htm
Wintu Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=WIT
Wintu Language Project  http://www.winnememwintu.us/WLP.html
Wintu Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=WIT
Wintun  http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Wintun.html
Wintun Baskets  http://www.californiabaskets.com/pages/wintunhome.html
Wintun Indians Upgrade to Plastic Houses  http://www.bizjournals.com/sacramento/stories/2002/02/25/story7.html
Wintu Recognition Project  http://www.calindian.org/wintu.htm
Wintun:  SFSU Narrative  http://bss.sfsu.edu/calstudies/NativeWebPages/wintun2.html
Wintu Tribe of Northern California  http://www.wintutribe.net/body_index.html
Wintu Tribe's Ceremony Will Challange Dam Proposal  http://www.indianz.com/News/2004/004000.asp
Wintu/Wintun Bibliography  http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/cilc/bibs/wintu.wintun.html
Wintu Worldview  http://www.siskiyous.edu/shasta/nat/win/wor.htm

Last updated 08/28/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press