FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Wyandot

 

 

Ethnie: WYANDOT (WYANDOTTE, WENDAT)
Language: Huron
Family: Northern Iroquoian
Stock: Iroquoian
Phylum: Macro-Siouan
Macro-Culture: Eastern Woodlands
      The Huron were nearly destroyed by their relatives, the Iroquois. Some were adopted by their conquerors. Numerous relocations followed for the survivors. During and subsequent to the Beaver Wars with the Iroquois, surviving Huron, Neutrals, Erie, Wenro and Tionontati confederated into the Wyandot.
      The Wyandot continued to fight and move several times in the Beaver Wars which finally ended in 1701.  They divided into pro American and pro British bands until after the War of 1812.  They eventually removed from Ohio and Michigan to Kansas and Oklahoma, though some remain in Canada.
Aboriginal Locations (Subdivisions)
NY     Among Erie and Wenro
OH     Among Neutrals and Erie
ON     Among Tionontati
PA      Among Erie
RQ     Among Huron
Present Locations
KA   Wyandot Nation of Kansas, Kansas City
OK   Wyandotte Nation of Oklahoma, Wyandotte
ON   Wyandot of Anderdon, Trenton, MI
Year History
1649 Beaver Wars - 2,000 Mohawk and Seneca destroyed the Huron mission-villages of St. Ignace and St. Louis with hundreds killed and captured and two Jesuit priests tortured to death; main village removed to Christian Island in Georgian Bay raising island population to 6,000; Attignawantan Huron had fled west and took refuge with the Tionontati only to have the Iroquois attack both of them; 1,000 Attignawantan and Tionontati fled north to Macinack Island
1651 Mackinack bands fled to an island in Green Bay with the Ottawa; the Seneca defeated the Neutrals and the Tahontaenrat Huron a few of whom retreated to join the tribes on the island in Green Bay; others who surrendered were adopted by the Seneca; a truce with the Iroquois allowed French Jesuits to establish missions in the Iroquois villages for Huron converts adopted by the Iroquois
1654 Trois Rivieres band moved to Christian Island
1656 Confederated Huron, Neutrals, and Tionontati became known as Wyandot and, along with the Ottawa, began trading furs with the French
1658 French fur traders, Pierre Radisson and Médart Chouart des Groseilliers, accompanied by the old Jesuit Réné Ménard, foloowed the Wyandot and Ottawa back to their villages to winter with tribes; Father Ménard wandered off into the woods and apparently was killed by the Dakota
1659 Wyandot and Ottawa fought a huge battle with the Iroquois along the Ottawa River; Wyandot removed to an island in the Mississippi River
1661 Facing war with the Dakota, the Wyandot returned to their old Lake Superior village site; 500 Wyandot and Ottawa starved to death during the winter after an early frost destroyed their corn
1662 Wyandot, Ojibwa, Algonkin, and Ottawa discovered a large Iroquois war party at Iroquois Point, just west of Sault Ste. Marie, and annihilated them
1665 Father Claude-Jean Allouez arrived at Chequamegon to establish the mission of La Pointe de St. Espirit for the Wyandot and Ottawa
1667 Peace pact between French and Iroquois ended war with Wyandot
1669 Father Jacques Marquette began serving at La Pointe mission
1672 Due to war looming with the Dakota, Father Marquette convinced the Wyandot and Ottawa to leave Chequamegon and move east near his new mission at St. Ignace
1684 Wyandot and Ottawa at Mackinac were drawn into the fighting and defeating the Iroquois in Illinois as French allies
1701 Fighting continued until a formal treaty of peace was concluded between the French alliance and the Iroquois League; Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, the commandant at Mackinac, arrived to Detroit to build Fort Ponchartrain. and asked the Wyandot and Ottawa to leave the St. Ignace mission at Mackinac and move south to Detroit
1704 Jesuits closed their Mackinac mission and returned to Quebec
1710 Tensions rose as Wyandot, Ottawa, Ojibwe, Peoria, Potawatomi, and Miami crowded into the area of Detroit and broke out into the Fox Wars upon the arrival of the Fox and Mascouten
1728 Second Fox War; Iroquois gave permission for the British to open a trading post at Oswego in their homeland. Wyandot and Ottawa were regular visitors
1730 Wyandot began encroaching into Iroquois "owned" Ohio
1738 Wyandot on the verge of civil war but the clan mothers intervened to keep Wyandot from killing Wyandot
1740 Wyandot trading openly with the British
1744 King George's War (1744-48), the Detroit Wyandot, Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi sent their warriors east to help the French defend Montreal from an expected British invasion; Sandusky Wyandot and Mingo remained neutral
1745 Sandusky chief Orontony strengthened his ties with the British and concluded a separate peace with the British allied Cherokee and Chickasaw
1748 Orontony organized a conspiracy against the French and burned their trading post at Sandusky
1750 French built a fort at Sandusky to limit Wyandot trade with the British
1751 Smallpox epidemic
1752 Wyandot renewed their attacks on the Chickasaw
1755 Wyandot and other French allies went east to fight in the French campaigns in northern New York
1761 Members of the French alliance had to come to terms with the British and agreed to meet at Detroit with Sir William Johnson, the British Indian Commissioner in a large conference attended by Iroquois, Wyandot, Delaware, Shawnee, Mohican, Kickapoo, Miami, Ojibwa, Mingo, Ottawa, and Potawatomi
1763 Pontiac Rebellion in which Wyandot reluctantly joined Pontiac and attacked the British fort at Sandusky
1764 Ohio Wyandot made peace with the British and signed the Treaty of Presque Isle
1777 400 Wyandot, Mingo, and Shawnee attacked Fort Henry (Wheeling, West Virginia) and burned the nearby settlement
1778 Half King's Wyandot made a feint at Fort Randolph (Point Pleasant, West Virginia) and then attacked settlements on the Kanawha River
1780 Wyandot, Mingo, and Shawnee joined the British expedition of Captain Henry Bird which ravaged the Kentucky settlements
1782 Colonel William Crawford attacked the Sandusky villages and was efeated by a combined force of Delaware and Wyandot, Crawford was captured by the Wyandot, Half King turned him over to the Delaware who burned him at the stake in revenge for the Movarian Delaware killed at Gnadenhuetten
1783 Revolutionary War ended, Wyandot warriors reduced to 100; British encouraged the formation of a new alliance against the Americans at a meeting held at the Sandusky villages of the Wyandot
1785 Treaty of Fort MacIntosh was signed with the Wyandot, Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Delaware where they agreed to American sovereignty over Ohio in exchange for a boundary with white settlement; 12,000 white settlers were north of the Ohio
1791 Washington finally decided to take Ohio by force and ordered General Harmar to move against the alliance replaced Harmar with Arthur St. Clair who's army was nearly annihilated in western Ohio with 600 killed and 400 wounded, it was the worst defeat ever inflicted on an American army by Native Americans
1792 Anthony Wayne took command in Ohio and  sat quietly, patiently waiting for the right moment to strike as the Indian alliance of 2,000 warriors crumbled
1793 A desperate attack on the Americans at Fort Recovery failed, the alliance had only 700 warriors to face Wayne's Legion at Fallen Timbers, after the battle, the retreating warriors sought refuge with the British at Fort Miami, only to have them close the gates on their former allies; Wayne never attacked but burned their villages and food supplies forcing a treaty
1805 Wyandot, Delaware, Ottawa, Ojibwe, Shawnee, and Potawatomi signed the Treaty of Fort Industry ceding more land and agreeing to a new permanent frontier
1806 Shawnee prophet Tenskwatawa visited the Wyandot villages making several converts, then he denounced four women as witches, nly the intervention of the Wyandot chief Tarhe prevented their execution
1807 Ceded more land by treaty
1808 Ceded more land by treaty
1810 Wyandot chief Leatherlips assassinated by Roundhead, a Detroit Wyandot chief loyal to Tecumseh; other Wyandot on the lower Sandusky killed two women as witches, and the calumet and wampum belts of the alliance were transferred from Brownstown to Tecumseh's capital at Tippecanoe
1813 Michigan Wyandot under Roundhead were among Tecumseh's staunchest supporters but Tarhe and his followers fought for the Americans; the division of the Wyandot continued until Tecumseh and Roundhead were killed at the Battle of the Thames
1814 Second Treaty of Greenville, the Wyandot, Delaware, Mingo, and Shawnee loyal to the Americans agreed to end hostilities with the tribes which had sided with Tecumseh: Kickapoo, Miami, Ottawa, and Potawatomi
1817 Treaty of Maumee Rapids (Fort Meigs), the Wyandot surrendered their remaining lands in Ohio in exchange for two reservations: the Grand Reserve on the upper Sandusky and the Cranberry Reserve
1818 Wyandot signed two treaties at St. Marys
1832 Wyandot at the Big Spring Reserve signed the Treaty of McCutcheonsville selling their reserve
1836  Ohio Wyandot signed another treaty selling the Cranberry Reserve
1842 ceded all their lands in Ohio and Michigan and agreed to move to Kansas
1845 664 Wyandot removed to Kansas where they ultimately purchased land
1857 200 Wyandot removed to Indian Territory
1867 Oklahoma Wyandot recognized
1873 Oklahoma Wyandotte drafted new constitution
1892 Anderdon Wyandots surrender their reserve, tribe remained in area
1956 Congress terminated Wyandotte Tribe of Oklahoma recognized status
Year Total Population KA OH OK ON Source
1600 Mooney estimate
1700 1,000 100 NAHDB calculation
1736 1,500 Tolstaga
1800 100 NAHDB calculation
1829 100 Andersan Reserve
1881 292 Tribal rolls
1900 1,650 100 350 200 NAHDB calculation 
1905 378 Oklahoma
1910 353 Census
1923 502 US Indian Office
1937 783 US Indian Office
1981 440 BIA
1989 366 BIA
2000 7,700 400 3,500 800 NAHDB calculation 
2005 400 3,600 800 Wikipedia
Other speakers of the same language:
Erie, Huron, Neutrals, Wenro
Wyandot Sites:
Christian Island History  http://collections.ic.gc.ca/simcoeregion/community/beausoleil/
Huron  http://www.lordnelsons.com/gallery/frontier/wright/06.htm
Huron  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/huron.html
Huron  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Huron.htm
Huron Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t164
Huron Carol  http://www.rivernen.ca/legend_6.htm
Huron Creation Story  http://web.telia.com/~u15508742/huron.htm
Huron History  http://www.tolatsga.org/hur.html
Huron Indians  http://caca.essortment.com/huronindians_rjru.htm
Huron Indians (Fourth Grade Lesson Plan)  http://ted.coe.wayne.edu/sse/units/HuronIndians.htm
Huron Indian Tribe History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/huron/huronhist.htm
Huron Moose Hair Decorated Moccasins  http://www.brantmackleygallery.com/moccasins.htm
Huron Museum & Huron Oendat Village, Midland, ON  http://www.huroniamuseum.com/
Hurons ... Allied to the French  http://www.mohicanpress.com/mo08016.html
Hurons/Wyandot/Wendat  http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/nativeamericans/hurons.htm
Huron-Wendat  http://www.horizonzero.ca/textsite/tell.php?is=17&file=10&tlang=0
Huron/Wendat Confederacy  http://www.mongabay.com/indigenous_ethnicities/north_american/Huron_Wendat_Confederacy.html
Huron-Wendat Language  http://ossossane.org/langue.html
Huron-Wendat Nation  http://www.telegraphe.com/wendake/indexen.html
Huron Wendat Nation  http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/200/301/ic/can_digital_collections/governor/heraldry/HuronWendatNation.html
Huron-Wendats  http://www.autochtones.gouv.qc.ca/relations_autochtones/profils_nations/hurons-wendats_en.htm
Joseph the Huron  http://upword.dns2go.com/joseph/epilogue.htm
Legend of Louis Durand  http://www.uwgb.edu/wisfrench/family/history/ldurand.htm
Lorette  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09360a.htm
Marquette, Father Jacques  http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/life_in_canada/85169
Marquette Mission Site  http://www.ssc.msu.edu/~anp/marquettemission/Huron_Ottawa.html
New American Indian Museum, Artifacts Are Alive!  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/09/0914_040913_indians_exhibits.html
Oendat (Huron) Legend of Kitchikewana  http://www.cqsb.qc.ca/svs/434/fnkitchi.htm
Ohio's Huron and Wyandot  http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/oh/newspapers/natives/huro15.txt
Sainte-Marie Among the Huron  http://www.saintemarieamongthehurons.on.ca/english/index.htm
Sagard  http://www.collectionscanada.ca/passages/h8-254-e.html
Smallpox and the End of the Huron Nation  http://www3.sympatico.ca/goweezer/canada/z16huron1.htm
St. Anthony Daniel  http://www.hwcdsb.edu.on.ca/canmartyrs/daniel_page.htm
St. Isaac Jogues  http://www.stisaac.org/isaacarticles.htm
St. John de Brebeuf  http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj52.htm
Story of an Unsung Legend  http://earlyamerica.com/review/2000_fall/foulkes.html
Who Really Sported the First Mohawk?  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues01/Co06302001/CO_06302001_Mohawk.htm
Wendat (Huron) at Contact  http://www.innisfil.library.on.ca/natives/natives/chp2.htm
Wyandot  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/kansas/kansaskansans/page25.htm
Wyandot Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t114
Wyandot/Huron Language  http://www.native-languages.org/wyandot.htm
Wyandot Indian Chiefs and Leaders  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/wyandot/wyandotchiefs.htm
Wyandot Indian Mill  http://fpw.isoc.net/KREK/Wyandot_Indian_Mill_Page.htm
Wyandot Indian Mission  http://www.udata.com/wyandotcovb/wyandotcovb/History/wyandotindianmission.htm
Wyandot Indian Tribe  http://www.nanations.com/wyandot/
Wyandot Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_language.asp?code=WYA
Wyandot Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_lang_family.asp?code=WYA
Wyandot Nation of Kansas  http://www.wyandot.org/
Wyandot of Anderdon Nation  http://mywebpages.comcast.net/wyandot/
Wyandotte  http://www.nativeamericans.com/Wyandot.htm
Wyandotte Nation of Oklahoma  http://www.wyandotte-nation.org/index.html
Wyandots Return for Statue Unveiling  http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues00/Co08122000/CO_08122000_Wyandots.htm
Wyandot Treaty - 1789  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/ntreaty/wya1789.htm
Wyandot Treaty - 1817  http://home.kc.rr.com/utosi/1817
Wyandot Treaty - 1818  http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Treaties/TreatyWithTheWyandot1818.html
Wyandot Treaty - 1850  http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Treaties/TreatyWithTheWyandot1850.html
Wyandott Indian Mission  http://www.gcah.org/Heritage_Landmarks/Wyandott.htm
Wyandot Words  http://www.native-languages.org/wyandot_words.htm

Last updated 09/10/05  Copyright © 2005 by Four Directions Press