FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Yokuts

 

Ethnie: YOKUTS (YOKOTCH)
Language: Yokutsan
Family: Yokutsan
Stock: Yok-Utian
Phylum: Penutian
Macro-Culture: Central California
Speakers 78      1990 Census
      The Yokuts are a language family with as many as 50 separate hunter/gatherer tribes, and numerous dialects. They occupied the entire San Joaquin Valley of central California from the mouth of the San Joaquin River to the foot of the Tehachapis, and the adjacent lower slopes or foothills of the Sierra Nevada, from the Fresno River south. They experienced huge population losses as a result of Mexican genocide, and were almost destroyed by the virtual holocaust of the indiscriminate genocide of the early American gold prospectors and settlers.
Aboriginal Locations
Subdivisions:  Tribes (# of villages):  Buena Vista Group: Hometwoli, Loasau, Tuhohi, Tulamni (5); Tule-Kaweah Group: Bokninuwad, Kawia, Wuchamni, Yausanchi, Yokod (11); Kings River Group: Aiticha, Choinimni, Chukaimina, Gashowu, Kocheyali, Michahai, Toihicha (14); Northern Group of Foothill Division: Chukchansi, Dalinchi, Dumma, Kechayi, Toltichi (17); Poso Creek Group: Paleuyami (6); Southern Group of the Valley Division: Apiachi, Choinok, Chunut, Koyeti, Nutunutu, Tachi, Telamni, Tsineuhiu, Wechihit, Wimilchi, Wo'lasi, Wowol, Yauelmani (27); Northern Group of the Valley Division: Chauchila, Chulamni, Coconoon, Hannesuk, Heuchi, Hoyima, Kakisamni, Nupchinche, Pitkachi, Tawalimnu, Wakichi (19)
Present Locations 2000 Census
Picayune Rancheria, Coarsegold
Santa Rosa Rancheria, Lemoore 299
Table Mountain Reservation, Tiant
Tule River Reservation, Porterville 473
Groups With Recognition Petitions Pending
Chukchansi Yokotch Tribe, Coarsegold
Chukchansi Yokotch Tribe of Mariposa, California, Mariposa
Year History
1802 Pneumonia, diphtheria epidemic
1805 Attacked Fr. Cuevas party, Peralta retaliated killing 11, capturing 30
1806 Measles epidemic
1815 Pico attacked rancheria near Madera, 5 killed, 50 captured, most escaped
1821 Large numbers indentured to Mexican feudal barons
1833 Epidemic, probably malaria
1839 Yokuts raiding party against Martinez lost 8, Castro then attacked 2 rancherias capturing 77
1850 Gold rush, influx of miners, settlers; beginning of several years of Mariposa War genocide, huge losses; virtually no specific accounts
1851 Yokuts signed peace treaty
1852 U. S. Senate rejected treaty; Campbell and 2 dozen miner killed 11; some Yokuts placed at Tejon Pass
1853 Great number died from malaria epidemic
1854 Ft. Tejon established
1856 Williams leading Tulare Mounted Volunteers ambush Ft. Tejon killing 5; 15 Yokuts killed near Visalia; 20+ Yokuts killed in fight at Battle Mountain in Tule River War
1858 200 destitute Yokuts removed from villages to Kings River farm by armed Whites
1900 Huge Tulare Lake virtually disappeared due to White drainage of water
1933 Chunuts Yokuts forced from their Tulare Lake village site
Year Population Source
1700 18,000 NAHDB calculation
1770 18,000 Kroeber estimate
1800 18,000 NAHDB calculation
1848 14,000 Cook estimate
1852 13,000 Cook estimate
1880 600 Cook estimate
1900 550 NAHDB calculation
1910 533 Census
1973 595 BIA
1981 640 BIA
1989 1,327 BIA
2000 1,500 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
None
Yokuts Sites:
Basketry:  Indian Tribes of Sequoia NP ... http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/berkeley/steward2/stewardg.htm
Basketry of Yokuts Indians ...  http://www.webcitypress.com/sanger/baskets.html
Basket; Yokuts, Rattlesnake Design  http://www.p4a.com/itemsummary/83967.htm
Basket; Yokuts, Seed  http://www.p4a.com/itemsummary/83969.htm
Black Eagle - Warrior Art    http://www.warriorart.com/
Central California Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/central_california_culture.htm
Chawchila Language  http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/~ehume/metathesis/Chawchila.html
A Chief - Chukansi Yokuts    http://www.edwardscurtis.com/ACHIEF.html
Choinumni Tribe  http://www.angelfire.com/biz5/thechoinumnitribe/
Curtis Plates  http://memory.loc.gov/award/iencurt/ct14/ct14toc.html
The Gold Rush Legacy:  Greed, Pollution, and Genocide    http://www.earthisland.org/eijournal/spring98/sp98g_wr.htm
History of Kaweah Reserve  http://kaweahoaks.com/html/history.htm
History of Mission Santa Cruz Student project  http://www.escusd.k12.ca.us/mission_trail/SCruz/SC.history.html
Indian Myths of South Central California  http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/ca/scc/
Indians, Tar Pits, and Tar Mines  http://www.sjgs.com/tarpits_hist.html
Los Banos History  http://www.keneva.com/LosBanosHistory.htm
Mariposa Indian War ...  http://www.militarymuseum.org/Mariposa.html
Mariposan Indian Family History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/mariposan/mariposanamilyindianhist.htm
Marvin Two Feathers McAllexander - http://www.msstate.edu/Fineart_Online/Gallery/Trophies/marvtwo.htm
Mission San Fernando Rey de Espana    http://www.notfrisco.com/almanac/kroeber01/sfernando.html
Native American Uses of Asphaltum    http://seeps.wr.usgs.gov/seeps/native_uses.html
Pigeon Snare Ambush Place  http://content.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/tf4g501051/
The Piercing of the Yokuts Shield  http://www.angelfire.com/id/newpubs/yokutshield.html
The Southern Yokuts of the Central Valley  http://www4.hmc.edu:8001/humanities/indian/ca/ch12.htm
Sugar and Salt    http://www.abotech.com/Articles/Campbell01.htm
Table Mountain Casino  http://www.tmcasino.com/
Tachi Yokut Authors  http://www.ipl.org/div/natam/bin/browse.pl/t319
The Tachi Yokut Tribe    http://www.tachi-yokut.com/
Truhohi Yokuts:  Theft of Fire  http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/ca/scc/scc18.htm
Yaudanchi Yokuts ...  http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/ca/scc/scc36.htm
Yokut Houses  http://encarta.msn.com/media_701508975_761570777_-1_1/Yokut_Houses.html
Yokut Indian Baskets  http://www.californiabaskets.com/pages/yokuthome.html
Yokut Literature  http://www.indigenouspeople.net/yokut.htm
Yokuts  http://www.californiahistory.net/2_natives/yokuts.htm
Yokuts  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/yokuts.html
Yokuts and Western Mono Ethnography  http://www.gerlecreek.com/documents/yokutsmonoethnography.htm
Yokuts Basket  http://www.kstrom.net/isk/art/basket/basksite.html
Yokuts Baskets  http://www.indianterritory.com/pages/yokuts_baskets.htm
Yokuts Baskets  http://www.yokutsbaskets.com/
Yokuts Baskets  http://www.curtis-collection.com/tribe%20data/volumeindex/volume14.html
Yokuts Baskets  http://www.sharktoothhill.com/baskets.html
Yokuts Bibliography  http://www.mip.berkeley.edu/cilc/bibs/yokuts.html
Yokuts Games  http://www.pacwesttraders.com/games.html
Yokuts Harvest (mural)  http://www.tfaoi.com/am/10am/10am343.jpg
Yokuts Indian - Dumna (Cassons) Kachayi Band  http://www.gerlecreek.com/documents/dumnayokuts.htm
Yokuts Indian Languages  http://www.native-languages.org/yokuts.htm
Yokuts Indian Tribe  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/california/yokutsindianhist.htm
Yokuts/Lang Description  http://www.ling.ed.ac.uk/linguist/issues/15/15-3344.html
Yokuts Language  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=YOK
Yokuts Languages  http://www.languagegeek.com/california/yokuts.html
Yokuts Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=YOK
Yokuts, Northern Foothill http://www.christusrex.org/www1/pater/JPN-yokuts.html
Yokuts (Northern Foothill) Language  http://www.language-museum.com/y/yokuts-northern-foothill.php
Yokuts - Origin of Death  http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/ca/scc/scc19.htm
Yokuts Religion and Expressive Culture  http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Yokuts-Religion-and-Expressive-Culture.html
Yokuts - SFSU Narrative http://bss.sfsu.edu/calstudies/NativeWebPages/yokut%20page.html
Yokuts Tools  http://www.sharktoothhill.com/tools.html
Yokuts Traditional Narratives  http://www.answers.com/topic/yokuts-traditional-narratives
Tule River Tribe  http://tulerivertribe-nsn.gov/Main.htm

Last updated 08/28/07  Copyright 2007 by Four Directions Press