FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE

 

Yuma

 

Ethnie: YUMA (QUECHAN)
Language: Quechan
Family: Yuman
Stock: Esselen-Yuman
Phylum: Hokan
Macro-Culture: Colorado River
Speakers 34      1990 Census
The Yuma were a sedentary bellicose hunter/farmer tribe. They occupied both sides of the Colorado River from just below the junction of the Gila to within 50 miles of the mouth. They preyed on all of their neighbors, and had conflicts with their closest relatives, the Mojave. They had little interest in horses except for food and traveled great distances over desert on foot.  Their militant disposition deterred early White immigration across the Colorado River.
Aboriginal Locations
Villages:  AZ Ahakwedehor, Huksil; CA Avikwotapai, Kwerav; MX Unnamed town
Present Locations
Colorado River Reservation, CA & AZ, Fort Parker, AZ
Ft. Yuma Reservation, CA & AZ; Ft. Yuma, CA
Year History
1540 Visited by Hernando de Alarcón
1701 First mentioned by Fr. Kino
1771 Visited by Garcés; later killed 34 Spaniards including Garcés
1774 Visited by Anza
1776 Salvador Palma, tribal leader, visited Mexico City
1781 Spanish settlement in territory soon destroyed, several including priests killed
1812 Aided Cahuilla and Serrano in revolt against missions
1851 Yuma-Mojave uprising
1852 Fort Yuma established by US Army
1884 Reservation established
1893 Forced into auction much of land
1912 Reservation size set at 10 acres per person
1978 25,000 acres restored to tribe, reversing 1893 action
Year Total Population AZ CA Source
1700 4,000 Forbes estimate
1700 4,000 2,000 2,000 NAHDB calculation
1774 3,500 Per Anza
1775 3,000 Garces estimate
1800 2,900 100 2,800 NAHDB calculation
1852 2,750 Bee
1872 2,000 Bee
1900 700 350 350 NAHDB calculation
1910 655 U. S. Indian Office
1910 834 Census
1923 826 U. S. Indian Office
1937 848 U. S. Indian Office
1963 1,544 Tribal roll
1981 3,584 BIA (including Chemehuevi)
2000 4,000 100 3,900 NAHDB calculation
Other speakers of the same language:
Halchidhoma, Maricopa, Mojave
Yuma Sites:
Arizona Indian Wars  http://jeff.scott.tripod.com/indian.html
Colorado River Culture and Ethnobotany  http://www.fourdir.com/colorado_river_culture.htm
El Camino del Diablo  http://southwest.fws.gov/refuges/arizona/diablo.html
Ft. Yuma Images  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/ftyuma/ftyuma_images.htm
Fort Yuma - Quechan Tribe  http://www.itcaonline.com/tribes_quechan.html
Fort Yuma Reservation  http://www.csusm.edu/bbiggs/loc/rezinfo/ftyuma/
Juan Bautista de Anza  http://www.desertusa.com/magjan98/jan_pap/du_anza.html
Ocean to Ocean Bridge  http://www.aztriad.com/ymabrdg1.html
Paradise Casino  http://www.paradise-casinos.com/
Pasqual  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/nativekids/pasqual.htm
Quechan  http://www.arizonan.com/Indianlands/Quechan.html
Quechan Indians Boast Long Colorado River History  http://www.yuma.army.mil/public-affairs/quechan.html
Quechan Language http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=YUM
Quechan Linguistic Lineage  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_lang_family.asp?code=YUM
Quechan Tribe Information  http://members.tripod.com/~waterbird/quechan.html
Quechan/Yuma Lanuage  http://www.native-languages.org/quechan.htm
Strip Mining the Trail of Dreams  http://www.earthisland.org/eijournal/new_articles.cfm?articleID=80&journalID=43
Yuma  http://www.desertusa.com/Cities/az/az_yuma.html
Yuma  http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/yuma.html
Yuma Indian History  http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/yuma/yumaindianhist.htm
Yuma Indians  http://jeff.scott.tripod.com/Yuma.html
Yuman Group  http://bss.sfsu.edu/calstudies/NativeWebPages/yuman.html

Last updated 09/07/07  Copyright © 2007 by Four Directions Press